Sessions / Location Name: Room C (Google Meet)

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Voice, agency and identity via bilingualism in ESL writing classroom #2515

Sat, Dec 4, 13:00-13:30 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

This present study explores the functions of L1 as a language resource in an L2 collaborative writing group. Specifically, it aims to determine how the interlocutors’ first language produces power and identity in the production of knowledge during the pre-writing stage. Participated by selected junior high school students in a premier public high school in the Division of Cavite in the Philippines, the researcher recorded and transcribed the small group’s conversations into episodes to examine the linguistic choice of the participants that elicit power and identity building using their first language in an L2 learning space. Guided and influenced by Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which highlights language as a cultural artifact that upholds dialectical relation between the learners and the social world, results revealed that the students’ L1 could serve as a language resource in sustaining their voice necessary to build power and identity. This is manifested by the learners’ use of code-switching and code-mixing in ESL classrooms to empower them as significant members of the learning groups. Interestingly, pure L1 also proved that it has functions to play in producing and sharing authentic knowledge necessary to learn L2 and to establish their learning identity and agency. Hence, this study proves that local and authentic knowledge reflected in a bilingual learning engagement produces cohesiveness in L2 writing.

Learners' perception of translanguaging: a case study of teaching English Debate in college #2563

Sat, Dec 4, 13:30-14:00 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

This talk aims to share learners' perception of how translanguaging (Garcia and Li 2014, Backer 2017, Li 2018) improves English majors’ process of constructing knowledge of local issues, while strengthening students’ global communication ability. As many EMI courses target to speak English for instructors in class, the translanguaging focuses on incorporating native and foreign languages in class for both instructors and learners. Backer (2017) has discussed the advantages of translanguaging to help learners obtain deeper understanding of the subject matter, develop the weaker language, facilitate co-operation, and integrate fluent speakers with early learners. To show how to achieve the goal of constructing knowledge and strengthening communication ability through translanguaging, this current talk focuses the preliminary practices of teaching English Debate to English majors in a private university in Taipei in Spring 2020 and 2021. The course objective is to introduce students to the techniques of debate in English, and students follows the steps: issue identification, data collection and analyses, opinion formation, speech organization and practice and final presentation. Through translanguaging, students are initially allowed to discuss in Chinese and collect Chinese/English data. Later, English is partially incorporated when students form their opinions and organize their speech. Finally, practice and final presentation are conducted in English only. The students’ feedback suggests that translanguaging gradually helps them achieve goals in the steps and improve their fluency in their English presentation. For example, one of the students' feedback from the Spring 2020 class suggested that "the instructor allowed us to speak and read Chinese, and this helped me learn faster. I can speak English more confidently." Another student's feedback from the Spring 2021 class revealed that the practice in Chinese helped him/her efficiently learn relevant information by reading Chinese materials, and therefore he/she can organize his/her English debate with the constructed knowledge. In general, students' from the two classes show the consensus that translanguaging bolsters their confidence in completing each English debate.

CLIL Teachers’ Collaboration Process in a Primary School #2533

Sat, Dec 4, 14:30-15:00 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a dual-focused educational approach in which language is used as tool for the learning and teaching of content. It has been widely adopted in various contexts, and many studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of such programs on students’ language learning, content learning, attitudes and motivation. The findings of previous research indicated that some CLIL programs were successful, while others failed to produce positive results. As CLIL programs is interdisciplinary, one of the factors that affect the success of CLIL is the collaboration between language teachers and content teachers. However, very few studies were conducted to document the collaboration process of CLIL teachers. Thus, the present study explored the collaboration between English teachers, the collaboration between English teachers and content teachers, and the participating teachers’ professional development in a CLIL program through observation, interviews, and analysis of documents. The participants were 2 English teachers and 7 content teachers in a primary school in Taiwan. Through analyzing qualitative data, the present study found the frequency of CLIL teachers’ interdisciplinary meetings, the participants in the meetings, and the interaction between English teachers and content teachers in the CLIL classroom had changed over time during the implementation process. Moreover, the participating teachers gradually increased their understanding of the important concepts related to CLIL and integrated these concepts into the design of lesson plans and teaching materials. Based on these findings, some pedagogical suggestions for teachers to implement CLIL programs and collaborate in such programs will be provided at the end of the paper presentation.

On Improving Student Teachers’ Bilingual Science Teaching Performance and Self-efficacy: An Action Research #2517

Sat, Dec 4, 15:00-15:30 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

In the 2020 academic year, ten senior students from a pre-service bilingual education program participated in a one-year elementary school teaching practicum at W elementary school with a focus on teaching science bilingually in both Mandarin Chinese and English. This study aims to explore student teachers’ changes in their performance and self-efficacy of teaching science bilingually. The practicum class met four hours a week, during which the students received full support and supervision from the case university, researchers, and W elementary. The student teachers’ instructions were evaluated by a Science education expert and a CLIL expert twice, once in November 2020 as pre-teaching performance, and the other during their full-time teaching at W elementary for three weeks in March 2021 as post-performance. Students’ teaching strength and weakness were analyzed after the pre-test. Most students applied the confirmation inquiry model (not the open-ended inquiry model as recommended in science education), used instructional language that was too difficult for children, showed poor class time management. A three-week remedial coaching program was conducted accordingly with intensive professional consulting among researchers and students during the winter break of 2021.

The instrument used to evaluate bilingual sciences teaching performance was the Bilingual Curriculum Design and Teaching checklist (Tyan, Chien & Tsou, under review). The results of independent t-tests showed statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test scores in terms of bilingual science teaching performance (t=2.26, p<.05) and bilingual science teaching self-efficacy (t=2.26, p<.001). Students’ changes were elicited from their final reflection. In terms of teaching performance, students focused more on their teaching during the pre-test. They developed various strategies to support children’s learning during the three-week full-time teaching practicum. In terms of learning assessment, students focused only on teaching during the pre-test and lacked the sense of assessment. During the three-week practicum, students had developed a variety of assessment methods. I used worksheets and oral assessments to confirm children’s understanding. In terms of classroom management, during the three-week period, students had developed humane, rigorous, and diverse methods.

A Case Study on Native English-speaking Teachers Perspective toward Conducting CLIL in New Taipei City Elementary Schools #2534

Sat, Dec 4, 15:30-16:00 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

This paper is to understand native English-speaking teachers’ perspective toward conducting the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) into the real classroom in Taiwan public elementary schools. As we know, the Taiwan government policy aims to develop Taiwan into a bilingual Nation by 2030. The two major objectives are ‘elevating national competitiveness’ and ‘ cultivating people’s English proficiency’. Hence, to help Taiwan to become a bilingual country (National Development Council, 2021), bilingual education has become increasingly popular in elementary levels. The literatures represented that CLIL instruction has viewed as an approach to promote students language competence and subject knowledge. Many schools tries to enhance students’ bilingual competence, so they have involved part of subjects or contents to teach in English, such as math, music history and science. English proficiency is believed to become a key factor to develop overall knowledge learning. In order to teach like North American style or so called Native like, the recruiting of native English-speaking speakers from other countries to teach in Taiwan has been used by policy makers as a strategy to improve their CLIL teaching abilities. The levels of local teachers’ English competence are perceived as a barrier to conduct CLIL well enough in class. However, to invite native English-speaking teachers has become the critical issues. What’s the native English-speaking teacher attitude toward implement CLIL in class? how they cooperative with local teachers? And how they deal with discrepancies between knowledge and linguistic skills while teaching in class. Data were collected from various sources, online Individual semi-structured interview, classroom observations and document review. Six native English-speaking teachers are from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. The findings indicated that native English-speaking teachers should been repositioned clearly once they are teaching in Taiwan. They obtain the similar concerns with local teachers regardless of three aspects; the level of students’ English competence, the intention of using CLIL in class, and the cultural issues of working with local teachers. Native teachers finally argues that there are gaps between government policy, school goals and their implementation are still problems while conducting CLIL.

Classroom-based Research for Teaching and Learning Pronunciation at Elementary School: How to solve Taiwanese EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Problems of Interdental Sounds #2532

Sat, Dec 4, 16:00-16:30 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

Pronunciation has been an important topic in English education, especially for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners and teachers. Based on the bilingual education policy in Taiwan (The Bilingual Nation 2030 policy, 2019), one of the objectives is to improve English communication skills. Pronunciation has been one of the key factors for effective communication. Most EFL studies (Hismanoglu, 2009; Bui, T. S., 2016; Ercan & Kunt, 2019) found many EFL learners face difficulties and make errors in pronouncing interdental sound /ð / and /θ/, however, few studies examined the interdental pronunciation errors specifically with a detailed analysis. With a classroom-based approach, this research aims to employ a qualitative analysis to investigate Taiwanese elementary school EFL learners and examine their pronunciation errors of the interdental sounds, including /ð / and /θ/ in English, providing a systematic analysis and phonetic-based learning strategies for elementary school teachers to solve the pronunciation problems of interdental sounds. The research questions are as follows: (1) What errors of Taiwan elementary school EFL learners would occur in pronouncing /ð / and /θ/ in English? (2)What is the pattern of these pronunciation errors when they appear in different positions of a word? (3)What are the causes of the problems in pronouncing /ð/ and /θ/? What is the solution for Taiwanese EFL teachers and learners? This study will conduct a survey to investigate Taiwanese elementary EFL learners’ pronunciation performances with the focus on interdental sound through recordings, interviews, and questionnaires to collect and analyze the general pattern and frequency of the pronunciation errors. Our classroom-based research findings would help to categorize the interdental pronunciation errors and pinpoint pronouncing errors of the interdental sounds in different positions (beginning, middle, or end) of a word, and propose learning strategies for English teachers and learners to solve the pronunciation problems with phonetic-based effectively.

Translanguaging in Bilingual Teacher Education in Switzerland #2503

Sat, Dec 4, 16:30-17:00 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

In the last two decades, bilingual programmes have received growing attention, even in officially quadrilingual Switzerland. In fact, bilingual public schools have been opened in bilingual border regions in particular, not least to establish peace between the language regions and to improve mutual cultural understanding. Since the autumn semester 2018, two universities of teacher education - the Bern University of Teacher Education (PHBern) and the French University of Teacher Education of the cantons of Bern, Jura and Neuchâtel (HEP-BEJUNE) - have opened a bilingual study programme. During the three-year training period for primary school teachers, which is based on the principle of reciprocal immersion. The students come from both German-speaking and French-speaking regions in Switzerland, or have grown up bilingually. The intensive exchange among the students enables them to deepen their language skills and acquire intercultural competences. In the process, they not only learn about the concept of translanguaging, but live it themselves right away. The bilingual degree programme strengthens mobility among the language regions and enables internships at German-speaking, French-speaking and bilingual schools in Switzerland. Students benefit from the privileged locations of the two universities of teacher education and from studying in the two most important national languages. In the history of Swiss teacher training, this is the first time that two universities of teacher education - one German-speaking and one French-speaking - have jointly offered a bilingual course for training primary school teachers. At the end of the training period, students can teach according to both curricula. Those who obtain the Bachelor of Arts in Primary Education in the "bilingual (German/French)" programme have a great many job opportunities, especially teaching in bilingual schools. In the presentation, bilingual students will discuss their experience in this innovative training programme for teachers, which is still unique in Switzerland.

Conception and evaluation of a German and bilingual teaching-project with a focus on biological content knowledge #2543

Sat, Dec 4, 18:00-18:30 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

Introduction: Plenty of studies have shown that language proficiency of bilingually educated pupils is significantly higher as opposed to traditionally taught pupils (Burmeister & Daniel, 2002, p. 499). On the other hand, empirical research concerning the acquisition of content knowledge in bilingual teaching is practically nonexistent (Bohn & Doff, 2010, p. 72). Furthermore, there is a lack of teaching material in foreign languages that is suitable for ESL (English as a second language) pupils. The study's aim is to make up for these shortages via the conception of high quality bilingual teaching material and an empirical study that scrutinizes the acquisition of content knowledge.

Method: The first step was designing bilingual teaching material. Therefore, the topic "water" was chosen and elaborated for German school children at grade 7. The material was printed by the renowned German publisher Klett. The material was used to conduct a comparative study at 10 German schools. At each school, a teacher taught two classes for a period of four weeks. One of the classes used the mother language, the other one was taught in English. A third class served as a control group that was tested, but didn't receive teaching. Content knowledge was documented by specifically created tests in a pre-, post-, follow-up design. As an addition, empirically validated motivational tests accompanied the study (Wilde, 2009, p. 31). The researcher’s hypothesis was that the pupils taught in the mother language would gain higher content knowledge than the bilingual ones.

Results and discussion: As predicted in the hypothesis, the pupils taught in the native language outperformed the bilingual pupils in the matter of content knowledge. The differences were statistically significant, but not as huge as expected beforehand. It is also noteworthy, that the bilingual group learned significantly more than the control group. The motivational test revealed no statistically significant differences whatsoever. To compensate the lack of content knowledge, more lessons should be assigned to a bilingually taught subject. Further studies should monitor bilingually taught classes over a longer time period to discover how content knowledge improves throughout time in comparison to a control group.

Bilingual education policies and teacher preparation-From Texas to Taiwan #2507

Sun, Dec 5, 09:05-09:35 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

In Texas, English Learners (ELs) enrollments have constituted an ever increasing proportion of the state’s public school population accounting for 11.8 percent of the total number of student in the public school. Thus, bilingual education and English as a second language programs are required or can be implemented as a social option. The needs of bilingual and ESL teachers are in a high demand to work with ELs. This presentation will include the topics of the bilingual education policy in Texas, pathway of preparing bilingual educators, content and language integrated teaching and learning, sample lessons, creating an effective learning culture in the bilingual classroom, and implications of Texas teacher preparation to another context (e.g., Taiwan). The presentation will be based on research-based evidence and classroom experiences from EC-6 bilingual educators. The presentation will focus on the pathway of preparing bilingual educators, and content and language integrated learning through classroom projects and lesson plans. At the end of the presentation, the presenters will discuss the modifications to meet the students' needs when implementing bilingual education to a different context.

Float, Float, Float Your Boat~ ♪ #2553

Sun, Dec 5, 14:00-14:15 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

• To Predict, to Observe, and to Explain. The teacher asks some questions to students to let them notice the science phenomena in daily life. Then, the teacher teaches in the P-O-E model, to guide the students to find out the answers for their predictions and try to make the explanation for the natural phenomena.

• To be a lifelong learner with competence. This lesson plan is designed according to the curriculum of 12-year basic education. The abilities to conduct the plan, communicating with others, and collaborating during group tasks are so important in the 21st century. As the result, this lesson plan contains the parts of the discussion, experiments, and hands-on activity. Students will learn both the knowledge of buoyancy and the skills they need for real life. We aim to motivate the students to become lifelong learners with competence.

• Science in your life, STEAM in our class! The teacher combines the contents knowledge with tasks. This can give students the opportunity to cultivate their competence in problem-solving. Besides, the STEAM teaching model contains the element of art, so it is a good way for students to show the content knowledge in multiple types.

Volume(容積) #2547

Sun, Dec 5, 14:15-14:30 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

The lesson id about volume. Students will be able to find out the volume of the milk carton with cubes and also understand the unit conversion between volume and capacity. There are some activities for students to find out the volume of their own water bottles and know how to measure the volume of irregular objects.

Surprise Door and Magic Wand #2550

Sun, Dec 5, 14:30-14:45 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

This lesson plan explores the application of magnetic force. The students apply the scientific concept and follow the steps, ask–think–plan–create–improve, to build a STEAM project “Surprise Door and Magic Wand.” ‧ Think like a scientist: By asking “What? Why? How?”, the students spot the cause-effect relationship as well as the mechanism behind it. ‧ Act like a scientist: By following the steps, ask–think–plan–create–improve, the students apply the scientific concept to build a STEAM project that shows door opens and closes. ‧ Talk like a scientist: By conducting a show and tell, the students describe and explain the mechanism behind the project.


Sun, Dec 5, 14:45-15:00 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

Students can analyze and explain the characteristics of each energy, and know the power origin from power car. By understanding the principle about power cars via 5E Learning Cycle, students can nourish essence of scientific inquiry and practice.

We build Portraits – Perimeter and Area Fun #2548

Sun, Dec 5, 15:00-15:15 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

Perimeter and area are not just topics in math curriculum. They are concepts we use to solve real-life problems. However, there’s one challenge for the young learners, which is to know when to calculate for area and when to calculate for perimeter. To clarify the situations whether to use either area or perimeter, this lesson plan adopted multiple real-life scenarios and have students think and choose the correct tool to use. The activities applied in this lesson plan are related to students’ life experiences. The final project of this lesson plan asks students to draw their own portrait and calculate area of each part of the body. Providing information in multiple modalities helps improve comprehension and recall for all students. In this lesson plan, the teacher created recording sheets and digital hands-on tools for students to manipulate shapes, perimeter, and area. Designed activities tried to increase students’ engagement. PowerPoint files in the lesson plan enable multimodal learning through the projection of images, animation for the visual mode; and interactive slides provide thinking time and ask students to do something. Students practice concepts in multiple class activities. This lesson plan starts with a simplified monster story to bring out the concepts of perimeter and area. Activities involved are age appropriate, considering Grade Four students’ cognition development. Classroom English, instructional language, and picture clues make learning more accessible.

What shape is it? #2551

Sun, Dec 5, 15:15-15:30 Asia/Taipei | LOCATION: Room C (Google Meet)

This lesson plan is designed to review students’ prior knowledge about shapes. Students can describe the name of plane figures, such as circle, square, triangle and rectangle. Students can also count the numbers of sides, vertices and anangles of plane shape.